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1947年3月15日英國駐淡水領事電文

Hoat-piáu: 2017-03-15 iû P生
Siu-kái: 2017-08-31

延續著數日以來的電文(見19號20號),身在台灣的英國領事G.M. Tingle,於1947年3月15日再向南京的英國大使館發出訊息。以下為中文翻譯、英語原文,與英國國家檔案館(The National Archives)影像:

英國領事館,
淡水,福爾摩沙,
1947年3月15日。

21號
(專人交送)

長官,
藉由引用我先前關於此區域的諸電文,我有榮幸告知閣下,台北城與淡水現在就外觀上來看已經回復正常,除了街上還有著不尋常數量的大批士兵。無論如何商業無法說已經回復,而食物也仍稀缺。

2、大部的增援部隊,據信已經向南方移動,而據報現在已經被包圍的台中,其前景是慘淡的。然而,那裡將會有一點不同,相較台北的福爾摩沙人「福爾摩沙」、「福爾摩沙人」對應的原文分別是「Formosa」、「Formosan」,其實按意義翻譯為「台灣」和「台灣人」即可;但為了處理「Formosa」與「Taiwan」同時出現在原文的情況,這裡將「Formosa」對應於「福爾摩沙」。陷於對3月8日晚間的協商之樂觀情緒而缺乏防備,甚至連所擁有的武裝亦然;在台中的人有著一定程度的武裝,且很難是沒有防備的。據報受傷的士兵們已經在昨晚從南方被送進台北。這點是只是為了強調與台北的對比,相較於我並未聽聞台北有士兵在上週末的射擊中被福爾摩沙人殺死或受傷。

3、關於在台北的福爾摩沙人於該時期當中被殺害的情況,盡我之力所可以提供的估算,是不少於800人,且可能多達1,000人。這些現在還必須再加上受到槍殺、以及在街上被用日本軍刀砍頭(相對較為稀少)而處死的受難者。據報有200名學生在基隆遭射殺,而他們的遺體被丟進海裡。這景象可說令人難以置信,但潮水正在將一些遺體沖上岸。當局正在獵捕「叛亂者」,而士兵則正在從事打劫。雖說不是所有穿制服的單位都如此;福爾摩沙人的敘述讚揚了一些憲兵,他們在少數案例中,於首府最糟的幾天裡向打劫者開槍。那些受牽連於「叛亂」而遭逮捕的人包括了王天灯,他是省參議會議員,而且也是處理委員會成員;還有林茂生,《民報》的社長;以及宋斐如,《人民導報》社長。至於李萬居,《新生報》社長,曾被士兵抓住,但一名憲兵介入調解了。蔣渭川成功地從家中逃脫,但他的女兒被派去逮捕他的警察官開火射傷。二二八事件處理委員會在3月10日被下令解散,理由的是它超出界限的政治要求,與近於對祖國的叛亂。

4、處理委員會所提出的三十二條要求(請見我的17號電文)被玩弄於本地政府的手掌上。據信陳儀在事前已經得到關於一些要求的訊息,以至於他能在要求被實際提出之前,迅速地獲得中央政府的支援承諾。如蔣介石在3月10日的紀念周演說中說到:「所謂的二二八事件處理委員會突然在3月7日提出無理要求,例如廢除警備總部,國家部隊解除武裝,以及台灣的陸上、海上、空中武力由台灣人組織。這些要求超過了地方行政的界限,因此中央政府無法接受。」此處為電文直譯,以下附上1947年3月11日《中央日報》上刊載的演說內容中文記錄節錄:「⋯⋯不料上星期五(七日)該省所謂『二二八事件處理委員會』突提出無理要求,有取消台灣警備司令部,繳卸武器由該會保管,並要求台灣陸海軍皆由台灣人充任,此種要求已踰越地方政治範圍,中央自不能承認⋯⋯」陳儀所斷然拒絕的兩點是警備總部的廢除與專賣局的廢除。當中央政府對某些要求不服時,他就沒有進一步需要擔心的因素。在前往日本路上的部隊被轉往此處,進而能比任何人所預期的可能增援還更快抵達,而監察院閩臺區監察使楊亮功也同時抵達。對台北的恐嚇在他的到來後數小時之內就已經開始了。手段精湛順利。福爾摩沙人錯愕茫然。除甚為年老者,沒人能想起日本統治下有何足以相提並論的。

5、在紀念周演說中大元帥提到中央政府將會派一名有大能的官員前去,協助長官陳儀解決最近的這項事務。該人可能是指白崇禧,他在3月13日抵達這裡白崇禧3月17日才抵達台灣,Tingle在之後另一則電文中修正了這點。

6、福爾摩沙人的未來展望是糟糕的。他們與大陸人的未宣之戰現在成了已宣之戰,不管哪種行業都將可能衰退。此後這個國度將永遠不會再那麼無人設防。進而福爾摩沙人所還有的,將會是在一個受到佔領的國度其人民的地下反抗。島上的經濟復甦看來是無限期推延了。

Sir Ralph S. Stevenson C.M.G.,
陛下的大使,
英國大使館,
南京。

我有榮幸做,
長官,
閣下最順服、
謙卑的下屬

G.M.Tingle

代理領事。

British Consulate,
Tamsui, Formosa,
15th March 1947.

No.21.
(By safe hand)

Sir,
With reference to my previous despatches on the situation in this district I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that Taipei city and Tamsui are now back to normal as regards appearances, except for the abnormally large number of soldiers on the streets. Business cannot be said to have resumed however, and food is scarce.

2. The bulk of the reinforcements are believed to have moved south, and the prospect for Taichu, now reported encircled, is a dismal one. There will be this difference, however, that whereas the Formosans of Taipei were caught in an optimistic mood over the negotiations on the night of the 8th March, unprepared and so without even the arms which they had, those at Taichu are armed to some degree and can hardly have been unprepared. Wounded soldiers are reported to have been brought into Taipei from the south last night. This only serves to heighten the contrast with Taipei, where I have heard no reports of soldiers being killed or wounded by Formosans during the shooting last week—end.

3. The most likely estimate that I can give of Formosans killed in Taipei during that period is not less than 800, and perhaps as many as 1,000. To these must now be added the victims of executions by shooting, and by beheadings in the streets with Japanese officers' swords (comparatively rare). There is a report that 200 students were shot in Keelung and their bodies thrown into the sea. This figure can hardly be believed, but some bodies are being washed up by the tide. The administration are hunting out "rebels" and the soldiers are doing some looting. Not all uniformed bodies though; Formosan reports give praise to the gendarmes who in a few cases shot looters during the worst days of the capital. Those arrested in connexion with the "revolt" include Wang Tien-ting, a member of the Provincial Political Council and also a member of the Disposal Committee, Lin Mou-sheng, president of the Min Pao, and Sung Fai-Ju, president of the Jen Min Tao Pao. Li Wan-chu, president of the Hsin Sheng Pao was manhandled by a soldier, but a gendarme intervened. Chiang Wei-chuan made good his escape from his home, but his daughter was injured when the police officials who called to arrest him opened fire. The February 28th Affair Disposal Committee was ordered on March 10th to be dissolved, on the grounds that its action had overstepped the limits of political demands and neared a revolt against the fatherland.

4. The 32-point demand presented by the Disposal Committee (please see my despatch no.17) played into the hands of the local government. It is believed that having had prior word of some of the points Chen Yi was able to get a quick promise of aid from the Central Government before the demand was actually presented. As Chiang Kai-shek said in his Memorial Week speech of the 10th March: "the so—called February 28th Affair Disposal Committee suddenly on March 7th presented unreasonable demand such as the abolition of the Garrison Headquarters, the laying down of arms by the national forces, and the organisation of the land, sea, and air forces in Taiwan by Taiwanese. These demands overstep the limits of local administration and therefore cannot be accepted by the Central Government." The two points on which Chen Yi was adamant were the abolition of the Garrison Headquarters and the abolition of the Monopoly Bureau. When the Central Government took exception to some of the demands he had no further cause for worry. Troops that were on the way to Japan were diverted here, thus arriving faster than anyone expected reinforcements to be possible, and Yang Liang-kung, District Supervisor of the Supervisory Yuan for Fukien and Taiwan Districts arrived simultaneously. Within a few hours of his coming the intimidation of Taipei had begun. The policy has succeeded handsomely.The Formosans are dumbfounded. None but the very senior ones can remember anything comparable under Japanese rule.

5. In the Memorial Week speech referred to the Generalissimo stated that the Central Government would send an official of great calibre to assist Governor Chen in the solution of the present affair. This may be Pai Chung-hsi, who arrived here on March 13th.

6. The future outlook for the Formosans is bad. The undeclared war between them and the mainlanders is now a declared war, whatever professions may be made to the contrary. Hence the country will never again be left so unguarded. It follows that all that remains to the Formosans will be the underground resistance of the people of an occupied country. The economic recovery of the island seems indefinitely postponed.

Sir Ralph S. Stevenson C.M.G.,
His Majesty's Ambassador,
British Embassy,
Nanking.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your Excellency's most obedient,
humble Servant.

G.M.Tingle
Acting Consul.

原文是出自英國國家檔案館的「FO 371/63425」檔案。